TVET system reform and qualifications frameworks in response to demands for sustainable and inclusive development

This session was chaired by Rupert Maclean, QAPCO Professional Chair in Vocational Studies, UNESCO Chair on TVET and Sustainable Development, Coordinator, UNESCO-UNEVOC Centre for Qatar, Office of Applied Research and Innovation. Presentations were delivered by Santosh Mehrotra, Professor of Economics, Centre for Informal Sector and Labour Studies, Jawaharial Nehru University, India; and Eunsang Cho, TVET Programme Specialist, UNESCO, Thailand.

Anglo-Saxon vs Germanic TVET systems: Are National Qualification Frameworks Still the Way Forward to Ensure Industry Engagement? 
Santosh Mehrotra (Jawaharlal Nehru University, India)

There are two world views of industry engagement with skills ecosystem – Germanic and Anglo-Saxon (Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) within the latter).

The presenter asks: "Do we need National Vocational Qualifications Frameworks (NVQF)?" Before 2004, hardly any country had one. Examples were given from Germany, East Asia,  and India, all of which became industrialised economies without National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ). These examples do not undermine the need for NVQ, but they are not empirical evidence of NVQ impact. Most developing countries lack research on TVET and the need for NVQ.

A new perspective and more comprehensive framework of TVET, National Human Resource Development: Lessons from Korean Experiences
Eunsang Cho (UNESCO Bangkok)

National Human Resource Development (NHRD), the planned and coordinated process of enhancing human resources in on or more political states or geographic regions for economic and/or social purposes (Cho & McLean 2004). A case study was presented from Korea, showing the evolution of the NHRD model there.

There are positive outcomes attributed to NHRD, but there are barriers, including the need to have political support. Funding is very important to support NHRD policies. NHRD challenges TVET. More longitudinal research in this area is required.